Gifted and Talented International

Gifted and Talented International (GTI) is the journal of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children. GTI an international, refereed journal devoted to publishing original research, theoretical studies, review papers or accounts of practice that contribute to our understanding and promotion of giftedness, talent, creativity, and optimal development of children, adolescents, and adults. Its purpose is to share current theory, research, and practice in gifted education with its audience of international educators, scholars, researchers, and parents. GTI is published twice a year.

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Articles in GTI 32(1)

Tracy Riley, Melinda Webber, & Katrina Sylva



The REAPS model is a teaching and learning model that places students in real-world problem solving, engaging students in active learning. The Ruamano Project was funded by the Teacher Led Innovation Fund, a New Zealand Ministry of Education initiative that supports teams of teachers to develop innovative practices for improving learning outcomes. This article reports on the implementation of REAPS with the Year 9 science students who investigated solutions for a local waterway. The case study involved approximately 90 students, their teachers, and the local community in a decile 3 (low socioeconomic) co-educational secondary school in a rural region of New Zealand. The study shows that the REAPS model can be implemented in the New Zealand context, but requires professional learning and support for teachers. The case study provides evidence that the differentiation principles, when applied to all learners, may increase engagement and identify potential.

Jennifer L. Jolly & Angela Chessman

This study seeks to investigate the body of literature generated in the Australasian Journal of Gifted Education from the establishment of the journal in 1992 until 2013, focusing on the research field in order to understand its research foci, the rigor of research generated, and how events in the Australian context can influence the type of research undertaken. This study was guided by four research questions (1) to what extent is research published in AJGE empirical?; (2) what proportions of the articles are quantitative, qualitative, or non-empirical?; (3) how does the empirical rigor compare over time?; and (4) to what extent has the 2001 Australian Senate Inquiry into the Education of Gifted Children influenced the research foci? A database of AJGE articles was constructed, and an adapted version of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to classify empirical studies. Results indicated that qualitative and quantitative research was equally undertaken; however, case studies and quantitative descriptive analysis were favored over other types of approaches. Empirical rigor varied over time, and few recommendations from the 2001Australian Senate Report were reflected in the research undertaken. There are a number of contextual explanations for the irregular presentation and lack of robustness in the quality of research, which are explored in this article.

Jessica Cannaday & Jennifer Courduff


This study focused on a partial replication of a mixed-methods study of teachers regarding certification practices in Gifted and Talented Education (GATE). Data sources included Likert survey questions as well as openended questions with current teachers at seven schools within a Southern California school district. Since completion of the original study in 2006, there have been changes in new local control funding formulas that affect Gifted Education. In light of these changes, a partial replication study measuring current teacher perceptions of GATE certification practices compared findings with previous perceptions in the district. The survey sample (N = 93) included faculty from the originally sampled k-12 schools. Results indicate that perceptions of gifted identification and characteristics vary according to GATE certification status of the teacher, but not according to grade level taught. Teacher perceptions of the necessity for GATE certification and/or training have changed since the original study was conducted. Teachers indicated that training is valuable, but not necessary for all teachers. When compared to the previous study, findings indicate positive growth in teachers’ perceptual knowledge regarding gifted student characteristics and the value of teacher training.

Samta P. Pandya

Based on a single-group one-year long evaluation study with 1,625 gifted children aged from 225 schools in 15 cities, this article examines whether participation in a spiritual education program increases their emotional intelligence. Results showed that gifted children’s emotional intelligence scores were higher post–spiritual education program (SEP) participation. Specifically, the post-test scores were higher for gifted children from European cities, US, Canadian, and Australian cities, Christian children, introverted gifted children, those who had undergone two or three sessions of the program and who regularly self-practiced. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that the most significant predictor of the post-test emotional intelligence scale scores of the gifted children was self-practice. The study foregrounds the need for a nuanced view of city contexts, gender, form of giftedness, and observed personality trait of gifted children, with the critical requirement of self-engagement through self-practice, in planning SEPs aimed at improving their emotional intelligence.

​Svenja Matheis, Leonie Kronborg, Manfred Schmitt & Francis Preckel

This study investigated the relationship between teachers’ beliefs about gifted students’ characteristics compared to students with average-ability and the teachers’ motivation (i.e., enthusiasm, self-efficacy). We investigated pre-service teachers’ beliefs and motivational orientations as substantial components of their professional competencies and aimed to make an empirical contribution to the discussion on the professionalization of teachers in gifted education. We expected that beliefs about the gifted would be in line with the disharmony hypothesis assuming they were intellectually strong, but deficient in non-cognitive domains. German (n = 375) and Australian (n = 315) pre-service teachers participated in a between-subjects experimental design that used student vignettes varying in ability and gender. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed that besides a high intellect, pre-service teachers from both countries associated maladjustment with giftedness and showed lower self-efficacy for teaching the gifted. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that high intelligence ratings when paired with high maladjustment ratings were associated with lower teacher motivation. This result is of high practical relevance as perceived self-efficacy relates to actual teaching behavior in a classroom. Implications for teacher education in gifted education are discussed.

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