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Below is a list of abstracts of articles that have appeared in Gifted and Talented International. This is currently a partial list but will be updated soon.
Creative ideation and motivated strategies for learning of academically talented students in Greek secondary school
Dimitrios Zbainos and Vassiliki Beloyianni
Keywords: Motivational learning strategies, self-regulation, motivational beliefs, creativity, ideation, academic performance
Abstract: A consistent body of research has indicated that intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and creative ideation tend to facilitate academic performance. This article examines differences in self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, and creative ideation among academically talented students, high achievers, and ordinary achieving students in Greek secondary school. To assess the relationship between motivational strategies for learning, ideational behavior, and academic performance, a sample of 287 students between the ages of 13 and 18 completed the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Furthermore, their school grades were used to provide data about their academic performance. The results indicated that academically talented students tended to use more self-regulated learning strategies and displayed higher self-efficacy and stronger motivational beliefs. Creative ideation was found to be negatively correlated with academic achievement, especially for low and moderate achievers. In conclusion, according to the results, high academic performance appeared to be related to higher academic self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and use of cognitive strategies. Nevertheless, it appeared to be related to lower creative ideation.
Autonomous creativity: The implicit autonomy motive fosters creative production and innovative behavior at school
Ingrid Rita Baum and Nicola Baumann
Keywords: Autonomy disposition, creativity, motivation
Abstract: Theories of creativity and empirical evidence have highlighted the importance of autonomy as a motivational source of creativity. However, we know little about the relationship between the implicit autonomy motive and creativity. Using a multi-method multi-informant design, we investigated the relationship between implicit autonomy motives and creative production. We assessed the implicit and explicit autonomy motives of N = 108 adolescents using the Operant Motive Test (OMT) and an explicit motive questionnaire. Then participants completed a creative figural drawing task. In addition, we collected teacher ratings regarding participants’ innovative behavior. Results revealed that implicit autonomy dispositions predicted not only production in a figural drawing task, but also teacher ratings of innovative behavior. These positive relationships remained stable when controlling for achievement motivations and other autonomy-related variables. In contrast, explicit autonomy dispositions could not predict creative production or teacher ratings of innovative behavior. We conclude that the implicit autonomy motive is an energizing force of creative production.
Public images of gifted programs in China: A 38-year analysis of Chinese news reports on gifted education
Sheng-Peng Huang, Yan Kong and Ying (“Alison”) Cheng
Keywords: gifted programs, public images, stereotypes, semantic network analysis, content analysis
Abstract: Gifted programs are an indispensable component of gifted education, and have drawn much academic attention in the recent years. However, the public images of such programs are still under-examined. In this study, we employed semantic network analysis and content analysis to uncover the public images of gifted programs in China and their change over time. Based on 1,486 Chinese news reports between 1978-2015 on gifted education, our analysis revealed four different images of gifted programs and their participants in China: “successful graduates”, “early ripe, early rot”, “superb intelligence”, and “all-around development”. The co-existence of two common stereotypes, “the chosen ones” and “Mad genius”, can be concluded from the emerging process of these four images and the correlations between them. In addition, the rise and fall of different images show how the public opinions of gifted programs change over time, influenced by both institutional interventions and culture shifts. The change over time is indicative of the social-constructive nature of public opinions towards gifted education.
Connecting creative coursework exposure and college student engagement across academic disciplines
Keywords: Coursework, creativity, higher education, student engagement
Abstract: This study extends research on the effectiveness of creativity training and the importance of student engagement in higher education. Using data from the “Senior Transitions” topical module of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), responses from over 25,000 seniors at 266 different U.S colleges and universities demonstrate that exposure to creative coursework can predict student engagement in a variety of areas. Ordinary least squares regression models determined the effect of creative coursework exposure on NSSE’s established measures of student engagement: reflective and integrative learning, higher-order learning, use of learning strategies, collaborative learning, diverse discussions, student-faculty interaction, effective teaching practices, quality of interactions, and supportive environment. Results suggest that exposure to creative coursework is a significant positive predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for sex, transfer status, enrollment status, first-generation status, age, SAT/ACT, race/ethnicity, major, grades, percentage of online courses, institutional control (private/public), and institution size. Potential reasons for these patterns of results are discussed. Implications include updating curriculum and programming for greater exposure to creative assignments and activities across all major fields.
What are excellence gaps and how can we close them? An interview with Jonathan Plucker and Scott Peters
Tyler Clark and Julia Roberts
Keywords: Excellence gap, equity
Abstract: The interview with Jonathan Plucker and Scott Peters presents the Excellence Gap as a concern to be noted in the United States as well as internationally. The Excellence Gap came to light as an important topic to inform policy when the Achievement Gap reached a high priority in U.S. schools. The emphasis on the Achievement Gap focused attention on students who had not yet reached proficiency, yet did not offer comparable attention to students who had already reached proficiency or beyond. The interview traces the history of the Excellence Gap literature and discussion of the implications, as well as presenting strategies for addressing the Excellence Gap.
Gifted Syrian refugee students in Jordanian schools: have we identified them?
Ali M. Alodat and Fawwaz A. Momani
Keywords: Gifted Syrian students, gifted refugees, gifted identification, gifted Syrian in Jordan
Abstract: This qualitative study aimed to analyze educational services offered in Jordanian schools to identify gifted Syrian refugee students. To do that, 42 semi-structured interviews were conducted with school principals and educational supervisors. Participants were asked open-ended questions about educational practices used with Syrian students inside refugee camps and northern cities in Jordan. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive coding analytical strategies. Results show that gifted identification services provided for Syrians students are insufficient and weak. The results also showed that school principals and educational supervisors have positive trends toward providing gifted education services. However, they suffer from a range of administrative and legislative problems that limit their ability to provide appropriate services to students. Finally, these results provide a comprehensive analysis for educators in Jordan to develop higher quality identification procedures for gifted Syrian refugees’ students.
Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving for Māori Boys: A Case Study in a New Zealand Secondary School
Tracy Riley, Melinda Webber, and Katrina Sylva
Keywords: Problem solving; REAPS; gifted; boys; indigenous; Māori; New Zealand
Abstract: The REAPS model is a teaching and learning model that places students in real-world problem solving scenarios to engage students in active learning. The Ruamano Project was funded by the Teacher Led Innovation Fund, a New Zealand Ministry of Education initiative that supports teams of teachers to develop innovative practices for improving learning outcomes. This article reports on the implementation of REAPS with the Year 9 science students who investigated solutions for a local waterway. The case study involved approximately 90 students, their teachers, and the local community in a decile 3 (low socioeconomic) co-educational secondary school in a rural region of New Zealand. The study shows that the REAPS model can be implemented in the New Zealand context, but requires professional learning and support for teachers. The case study provides evidence that the differentiation principles, when applied to all learners, may increase engagement and identify potential.
The Landscape of Australian Gifted Education Research: 1992–2013
Jennifer L. Jolly and Angela Chessman
Keywords: Australian research; evaluation; gifted; methodologies
Abstract: This study seeks to investigate the body of literature generated in the Australasian Journal of Gifted Education from the establishment of the journal in 1992 until 2013, focusing on the research field in order to understand its research foci, the rigor of research generated, and how events in the Australian context can influence the type of research undertaken. This study was guided by four research questions: (1) to what extent is research published in AJGE empirical?; (2) what proportions of the articles are quantitative, qualitative, or non-empirical?; (3) how does the empirical rigor compare over time?; and (4) to what extent has the 2001 Australian Senate Inquiry into the Education of Gifted Children influenced the research foci? A database of AJGE articles was constructed, and an adapted version of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to classify empirical studies. Results indicated that qualitative and quantitative research was equally undertaken; however, case studies and quantitative descriptive analysis were favored over other types of approaches. Empirical rigor varied over time, and few recommendations from the 2001Australian Senate Report were reflected in the research undertaken. There are a number of contextual explanations for the irregular presentation and lack of robustness in the quality of research, which are explored in this article.
Teacher Perceptions of Gifted and Talented Certification Practices in a Southern Californian School District: A Replication Study
Jessica Cannaday and Jennifer Courduff
Keywords: Certification; Endorsement; Gifted; Identification; Perceptions; Teacher
Abstract: This study focused on a partial replication of a mixed-methods study of teachers regarding certification practices in Gifted and Talented Education (GATE). Data sources included Likert survey questions as well as openended questions with current teachers at seven schools within a Southern California school district. Since completion of the original study in 2006, there have been changes in new local control funding formulas that affect Gifted Education. In light of these changes, a partial replication study measuring current teacher perceptions of GATE certification practices compared findings with previous perceptions in the district. The survey sample (N = 93) included faculty from the originally sampled k-12 schools. Results indicate that perceptions of gifted identification and characteristics vary according to GATE certification status of the teacher, but not according to grade level taught. Teacher perceptions of the necessity for GATE certification and/or training have changed since the original study was conducted. Teachers indicated that training is valuable, but not necessary for all teachers. When compared to the previous study, findings indicate positive growth in teachers’ perceptual knowledge regarding gifted student characteristics and the value of teacher training.
Spiritual Education Program for Improving the Emotional Intelligence of Gifted Children: A Multi-City Single-Group Evaluation Study
Samta P. Pandya
Keywords: Emotional intelligence; evaluation study; gifted children; spirituality
Abstract: Based on a single-group one-year long evaluation study with 1,625 gifted children from 225 schools in 15 cities, this article examines whether participation in a spiritual education program increases their emotional intelligence. Results showed that gifted children’s emotional intelligence scores were higher post–spiritual education program (SEP) participation. Specifically, the post-test scores were higher for gifted children from European cities, US, Canadian, and Australian cities, Christian children, introverted gifted children, those who had undergone two or three sessions of the program and who regularly self-practiced. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that the most significant predictor of the post-test emotional intelligence scale scores of the gifted children was self-practice. The study foregrounds the need for a nuanced view of city contexts, gender, form of giftedness, and observed personality trait of gifted children, with the critical requirement of self-engagement through self-practice, in planning SEPs aimed at improving their emotional intelligence.
Threat or Challenge? Teachers’ Beliefs About Gifted Students and Their Relationship to Teacher Motivation
Svenja Matheis, Leonie Kronborg, Manfred Schmitt, and Franzis Preckel
Keywords: teacher motivation; teacher self-efficacy; teacher beliefs; cross-country study; teacher
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between teachers’ beliefs about gifted students’ characteristics compared to students with average-ability and the teachers’ motivation (i.e., enthusiasm, self-efficacy). We investigated pre-service teachers’ beliefs and motivational orientations as substantial components of their professional competencies and aimed to make an empirical contribution to the discussion on the professionalization of teachers in gifted education. We expected that beliefs about the gifted would be in line with the disharmony hypothesis assuming they were intellectually strong, but deficient in non-cognitive domains. German (n = 375) and Australian (n = 315) pre-service teachers participated in a between-subjects experimental design that used student vignettes varying in ability and gender. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed that besides a high intellect, pre-service teachers from both countries associated maladjustment with giftedness and showed lower self-efficacy for teaching the gifted. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that high intelligence ratings when paired with high maladjustment ratings were associated with lower teacher motivation. This result is of high practical relevance as perceived self-efficacy relates to actual teaching behavior in a classroom. Implications for teacher education in gifted education are discussed.
Leonie Kronborg and Franzis Preckel
Pentagram of Habits: Considering Science Teachers’ Conceptions of “Habits of Mind” Associated with Critical Thinking in Several of Iran’s Special Gifted Schools
Mehdi Ghahremani, Sareh Karami and Philip Balcaen
Keywords: Gifted education; critical thinking; domain-general habits of mind; science teachers’ conception(s)
Abstract: In the last two decades, one can see the widespread acceptance of the importance of teaching critical thinking (CT) as a 21st-century competency for all students from primary to graduate school. Lack of effective instructional strategies cause problems in developing effective CT curriculum. This research study aimed at the exploring the problem of domain-general versus
domain-specific tension associated with the definition and fostering critical thinking. We examined Iranian science teachers’ conception(s) of this tension. We applied stratified random sampling for the observational phase (initial pool of participants). Using our classroom observation scale, through the lens of the Critical Thinking Consortium’s pedagogical framework (TC2) as a theoretical framework, we observed N = 27 gifted science classrooms to evaluate teachers’ instructional strategies in terms of developing CT abilities. Applying purposeful sampling, we interviewed expert teachers based on the observational phase, to investigate their understandings of CT’s general-domain habits of mind. Applying 4 + 1 classical elements as a conceptual framework, we examined various dimensions of these science teachers’ conceptualization of thinking critically. Traditional gradual reduction of interviews resulted in the development of a culturally informed five-elemental pentagram of habits of mind shared by these educators. Further, these teachers addressed some instructional strategies to embed CT in the science classes.
Creativity and Innovation in Iceland: Individual, Environmental, and Cultural Variables
Barbara A. Kerr, Maxwell Birdnow, Jenelle Hallaert, Keely Alexander, Robyn Malmstena, Olivia Stull, J. D. Wright, Brittany Lucas, Rachel Swanson, and Grace J. Claiborn
Keywords: Creativity; psychology; talent; culture; education
Abstract: This comprehensive literature review (CLR) is an analysis and synthesis of literature, observations, interviews, and artifacts as a means to answer the question, “Why is Iceland so innovative?” Iceland is considered by international indices as a leading nation in innovation in many fields, including design, music, art, and literature. A team of doctoral-level students and master’s-level counselors studying the psychology of creativity collected information regarding individual ability and personality in Iceland as well as the natural, physical, and social environment variables that might be related to creativity and innovation. The creativity literature supported the idea that ability and personality attributes of Icelanders might be the source of Icelandic innovation. The popular literature often referred to an environment of extremes and natural beauty that inspires higher rates of creativity and innovation. The scholarly literature pertaining specifically to Iceland suggested instead that open and egalitarian families; innovation education curricula and free play; cultural support for creativity; and government policies were the main drivers of innovation in Iceland. The researchers’ observations found that interviewees often disputed the literature, particularly regarding the impact of high ability, natural environment, and policy on innovation, and that artifacts supported most environmental variables.
Exploring Differences in Creativity Across Academic Majors for High-Ability College Students
Angie L. Miller, Veronica A. Smith
Keywords: Academic major; creativity; high-ability; young adult
Abstract: Many current theories and models include creativity as a component of giftedness, conceptualizing the construct in numerous ways that complement giftedness. Variations in creativity have also been studied among different academic disciplines, suggesting that although there may be higher levels of creativity for some, major choice is a complex concept. The current study explores differences in several aspects of creativity based on academic major for a high-ability young adult population. Using data from 399 Honors College students at a Midwestern university in the United States, a MANOVA and series of 1-way ANOVAs suggest significant differences by academic major for creative engagement, creative cognitive style, and fantasy, but not for tolerance or spontaneity. The pattern of results generally indicates higher creativity among arts and humanities majors, compared with other disciplines such as education and pre-professional training, although these fields can also benefit from creative input. Potential curricular and experiential reasons for these differences are discussed, along with some implications for educational programming and interventions.
Control and resilience: The Importance of an Internal Focus to Maintain Resilience in Academically Able Students
Leonie Kronborg, Margaret Plunkett, Nicholas Gamble, and Yvette Kaman
Keywords: Aptitude; high ability; high achievement; locus of control; resilience
Abstract: This article reports one component of a longitudinal multilayered research project originating from a unique partnership between a university and a selective secondary school in Victoria, Australia. One hundred and twenty-five Year 10 academically able students at the school completed a survey at two different times to investigate a range of motivational constructs, including locus of control and resilience. Students were grouped according to their locus of control (LoC) focus (either internal or external), and, subsequently, scores from their resilience profiles were compared using multivariate analysis of variance. Findings illustrated that students with a more internally focused locus of control were more resilient at two time points. These findings have important implications for educators, as resilience is recognized as an important attribute to be developed in all students, including academically able students.
Elementary Students’ Perceptions of Their Classroom Activities in China: A Validation Study
Yang Yang, Marcia Gentry, Jiaxi Wu, Enyi Jen and Yukiko Maeda
Keywords: Chinese students; cross-cultural study; gifted students; instrument validation; student attitudes toward school
Abstract: This study is to investigate whether My Class Activities (MCA; Gentry & Gable, 2001a), an instrument developed to measure students’ perceptions of their classroom activities, yields valid data when used with elementary students in China after translation into Chinese. The four factors measured by the instrument (Interest, Challenge, Choice, and Enjoyment) are related closely to students’ motivation and optimal learning as described in Chinese literature. Data from 943 elementary students from a school in mid-China were used in the analyses from an elementary school. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a four correlated factor model with all 31 items was not a good fit to the data. Factor loadings were checked, and two items were removed from the “challenge” factor. A second four correlated factor model with 29 items generated better goodness-of-fit indices. Measurement equivalence of this model was tested between the Chinese and theU.S. sample of 943 students randomly selected from the original normative sample of the MCA. Results indicated partial measurement invariance of the revised instrument. Further research was suggested with implications for practice.
Self-Concept Changes in Multiple Self-Concept Domains of Gifted Students Participating in a Summer Residential School
Franzis Preckel, Hannah Rach and Vsevolod Scherrer
Keywords: giftedness; gifted education; summer schools; enrichment; self-concept
Abstract: The present study investigated changes in self-esteem, academic self-concept, intellectual selfconcept, and social self-concepts of acceptance, assertion, relation with same-sex peers and relations with other-sex peers with 177 gifted students participating in a 16-day summer school in Germany. Students were assessed three times by self-report questionaires, one or three weeks before the school started, at the seventh day, and at the fifteenth day of the summer school. Scales showed strict measurement in variance over time such that scale means could be compared by repeated measures ANOVAs. Although academic self-concept did not change over time, intellectual self-concept showed a decrease.
Turkish Adaptation of the Educational – Learning Capital Questionnaire: Results for Gifted and Non-Gifted Students
Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar
Keywords: Actiotope model; Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital; QELC; education capital; learning capital; giftedness
Abstract: The Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) focuses on person–environment interactions to define giftedness. The development of the Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC) was based on the AMG. The first aim of this study was to present the reliability and validity of a Turkish version of the QELC for 10th grade students. The second aim of this study was the administration of the QELC in gifted and non-gifted students and the determination of mean QELC-scale differences between both groups. Two different samples were included in the study. In the first sample, 421 10th grade students took the QELC (147 boys, 274 girls). The second sample consisted of 38 gifted students and 38 nongifted students, the latter randomly selected from the first sample. In addition to the QELC, confidence in one’s competence, failure coping, stability and modifiability beliefs regarding one’s action repertoire were assessed and used to validate the QELC. School grades were collected, too. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-factor structure of the QELC (i.e., educational capital and learning capital). The results supported the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of QELC. Gifted students had lower scores in educational as well as learning capital than non-gifted students.
Alignment of a High-Ranked PISA Mathematics Curriculum and the Parallel Curriculum for Gifted Students: Is a High PISA Mathematics Ranking Indicative of Curricular Suitability for Gifted Learners?
Julie Anne Irving, Ernestina Oppong and Bruce M. Shore
Keywords: alignment study; curriculum; gifted; mathematics; Parallel Curriculum Model; PISA; Quebec
Abstract: Quebec students have generally excelled in international mathematics comparisons and 22% performed in the top category, Level 6, on PISA in 2012. Several countries with more extensive gifted programs scored and ranked considerably lower and had smaller proportions achieving Level 6. Does this mean a general mathematics curriculum with such indices of success could sufficiently serve gifted students? The US NAGC’s Parallel Curriculum model served as a template to explore Quebec’s ninth-grade mathematics curriculum for components of the four Parallel Curriculum strands: core, connections, practice, and identity. The Quebec curriculum included a strong core, but fewer elements of the three other Parallels. The anomaly remains: A strong core curriculum was associated with high PISA scores and rankings, yet did not meet all the criteria for gifted programming. At the same time, even though the literature reports that formal gifted programming is sometimes associated with higher proportions of learners achieving at PISA’s level 6, such provision is not as well related to overall high PISA averages or rankings.
Franzis Preckel and Leonie Kronborg
Toward an Iranian Conception of Giftedness
Sareh Karami and Mehdi Ghahremani
Keywords: conceptions of giftedness; cross-cultural studies; Gulistan; Iranian canon
Abstract: Using a grounded theory approach to the study of historical texts and an expert interview, this study investigates culturally embedded conceptions of giftedness as evidenced in one of the most important Iranian literary canons, The Gulistan, to guide the development of education and programming for gifted and talented students in Iran. The Gulistan depicts the real world in its stories. Historically, The Gulistan has provided guidance to gifted and wise individuals regarding how to live life. Investigating these conceptions in The Gulistan’s stories gives us significant insight into what historically has counted as giftedness in the Iranian culture. Main themes arising from this study include Saheb Ferasat (insighted), Shukhdideh (wit), Dana & Aghel (practical intelligent), Kheradmand (wise), and Hakim (sage). This study is an exploration of an approach to developing an Iranian conception of giftedness that is embedded in the culture. The framework and findings may be of interest to scholars, policy makers, and educators in various roles.
The Importance of Being Gifted Stages of Gifted Identity Development, Their Correlates and Predictors
Tanja Gabriele Baudson and Johanna Fee Ziemes
Keywords: Cass identity model; gifted identity; high-IQ societies; identity development; Mensa; minority stress
Abstract: Identity formation is particularly challenging for stigmatized minorities. The minority stress model (MSM) posits that both negative stereotypes and their internalization represent stressors. There is evidence that this applies to the gifted, too. However, their status is ambiguous, given that both negative and positive stereotypes exist. Furthermore, individual wellbeing also hinges on one’s identity stage, as outlined in the Cass identity model (CIM). The CIM was applied to gifted identity development in a survey of 742 high-IQ society members (16–79 years). Identity stages could be reliably and validly assessed with a new measure and were related to adjustment and coping as expected. Latent class analysis revealed four groups, which resembled the CIM, but with a few notable exceptions. Ordinal-logistic regression showed that years since first suspicion and since diagnosis of giftedness predicted group membership. In sum, identity development in the gifted examined here shows similarities with the CIM stages (which are differentially related to wellbeing and feelings toward one’s own giftedness) but has its own specific characteristics, too.
Giftedness Counseling in Germany: Consultation Reasons and Issues and Their Relations to Gender, Age, and Aptitude
Nele Hannig and Christine Koop
Keywords: consultation; counseling; counseling issues; giftedness
Abstract: In Germany, parents can request counseling and assessment of school-related learning and behavioral issues from either independent counseling centers or school-based ones. Focusing on giftedness consultations at independent counseling centers, the goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the reasons for and the issues discussed during the consultation process. Specifically, the frequency and relationships among each other are examined as well as the relationships with the client characteristics gender, age, and ability. A questionnaire, completed by the counseling professionals, was used to assess the reasons that were given for seeking consultation and the topics that were addressed during the counseling process at 14 psychodiagnostic counseling centers. Overall, data from 156 children and adolescents (25% female) were included in the analyses. Frequent reasons for and topics of the consultations were giftedness assessment, advocacy of gifted education, and motivation. Correlation analyses identified two separate groups of themes: “social and behavioral problems” and “learning disorders and achievement-related problems.” Whereas the motives for seeking consultation and the counseling issues were typically the same for both boys and girls, some of these varied greatly depending on age, type of school, and aptitude of the children. These results are discussed with respect to the current state of research as well as their implications for counseling practice and the qualifications of the professional counseling personnel.
Gifted Education’s Reflection of Country-specific Cultural, Political, and Economic Features
Roger S. Frantz and Katie Larsen McClarty
Keywords: country-specific gifted education; gifted education policy; OECD countries
Abstract: Educational policies and practices are influenced by cultural, political, and economic factors, and this is also true of specialized educational approaches such as gifted education. Factors such as a country’s cultural tendency toward egalitarianism or meritocracy, whether the political system is centralized or decentralized, and the degree to which the economy supports basic education for all students may be reflected in the way in which a country approaches gifted education. We examined gifted and talented education policies and practices in 38 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member and partner countries and considered how those policies and practices may reflect country-specific characteristics. In this article, we discuss ways in which gifted education in OECD countries may reflect cultural, political, and economic features of countries.
From Overexcitabilities to Openness: Informing Gifted Education with Psychological Science
Alexandra Vuyk, Barbara A. Kerr and Thomas S. Krieshok
Keywords: Five-factor model of personality; gifted education paradigms; openness to experience; overexcitability
Abstract: In the theory of positive disintegration (TPD), Dabrowski described overexcitabilities (OEs), manifestations of inner energy with a developmental purpose that appear more common in gifted individuals. Unfortunately, most studies present OEs outside of the context of the original theory as if they were standalone traits applicable to gifted students. In this atheoretical conceptualization, OEs seem to define the personality trait of openness to experience described in the five-factor model of personality (FFM) as each OE can be matched with a specific facet of openness. Descriptions of facets of openness and corresponding OEs are strongly similar. In this article we argue that they are conceptually equivalent and that current research on openness and OE supports this assertion. The FFM has robust empirical support, and TPD lacks empirical support; additionally, OEs as currently presented in gifted education deviate from TPD’s original tenets. Therefore, gifted education should shift its way of explaining these tendencies by framing them as the personality trait of openness to experience rather than OEs.
Barbara A. Kerr and Leonie Kronborg
What Contributes to Gifted Adolescent Females’ Talent Development at a High-Achieving, Secondary Girls’ School?
Charlotte Tweedale and Leonie Kronborg
Keywords: gifted adolescent females; talent development; high achiever
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine what contributes to gifted adolescent females’ talent development at a high-achieving girls’ school. Using Kronborg’s (2010) Talent Development Model for Eminent Women as a theoretical framework, this research examined the conditions that supported and those that hindered the participants’ talent development in the setting of their secondary girls’ school. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews were conducted with six gifted females, 17–20 years of age, who were all identified as gifted and who achieved highly in one or more talent domains during their years at their former high-achieving secondary girls’ school. The findings of this research support the theoretical framework. The themes found to support these participants’ talent development were psychological qualities, individual abilities, opportunities to achieve in talent domain(s), allies in the family, allies beyond the family, passionate engagement in talent domain, and feelings and experiences of difference. These findings add support to the themes Kronborg (2010) found in her Talent Development Model of Eminent Women.
Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Locus of Control and Goal Orientation in Mexican High-Achieving Students
Angel Alberto Valdés-Cuervo, Pedro Antonio Sánchez Escobedo and María Dolores Valadez-Sierra
Keywords: Goal orientation; locus of control; high-achieving students; self-concept
Abstract: The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as social self-concept, academic self-concept, achievement motivation toward study, and attributions regarding academic success or failure. It was found that female students have a better academic self-concept and a higher achievement motivation than males. Findings are consistent with previous studies in Mexico that provide evidence of females having greater emotional resources associated with school success.
Creativity in Students’ Writing of Open-Ended Stories Across Ethnic, Gender, and Grade Groups: An Extension Study from Third to Fifth Grades
Abdulnasser A. Alhusaini and C. June Maker
Keywords: CAT; creativity; DISCOVER; ethnicity; gender; grade
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine students’ creativity when writing open-ended stories—across ethnicity, gender, and grades. Participants were 139 students, including 67 males and 72 females, from urban and rural areas of the southwestern United States. The students were in third, fourth, and fifth grades and included three ethnicities: White, Mexican American, and Navajo. Written stories were selected from the Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities while Observing Varied Ethnic Responses (DISCOVER) project’s archives. Creative products were scored by using the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) by five experts. No significant differences were found between boys and girls; also, no significant differences were found across the three grade levels. The differences among the three ethnic groups were significant: the White students were more creative. Future researchers should focus on implementing comprehensive teaching methods to meet all students’ needs (e.g., the DISCOVER project). Teachers who work at schools with minority students should establish an early childhood program for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to help young students use the language and adapt to the culture.
Grade Skipping and the Achievements of Girls
Keywords: Achievements and problems; gender; grade skipping
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to assess and document the experiences of schools, parents, adolescents, and, finally, adults with grade skipping in Germany to form recommendations for handling this type of acceleration. This article is based on three studies on grade skipping; two studies conducted in schools in Lower Saxony, Germany, spanned the years 1980–2001, the first including questionnaires for parents and interviews with adolescents. The third study, conducted in 2012, consists of questionnaires for adults born between 1917 and 1987. Overall, the schools reported few intellectual problems and slightly more emotional or social ones. As for the parents, for 97% of the girls and 88% of the boys it had been the right decision. The adolescents were much happier in the higher grades as they felt they fitted in better despite some problems with older students. Of the adults, 89% of the females and 78% of the males reported they would grade skip again if conditions were the same. When problems occurred, findings revealed that when handling grade skipping, mistakes had been made due to a lack of knowledge of acceleration.
Sources of Global Academic Self-efficacy in Academically High-achieving Females before the Onset of Disordered Eating
Jennifer Krafchek and Leonie Kronborg
Keywords: Gender; high achievement; self-efficacy; sources of selfefficacy; teacher bullying; eating disorders
Abstract: There is limited research applying the four sources of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) to global academic self-efficacy. This qualitative study examined the sources of global academic self-efficacy in a sample of academically high-achieving females who developed disordered eating. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 participants to gain an understanding of how they decided that they were or were not academically excellent before the onset of their disordered eating. The findings reveal data on the wide range of sources identified by these high -achieving females and on issues that negatively influenced how they integrated the sources into a global concept of their academic self-efficacy. Teachers should be mindful of providing information from mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and persuasion sources to high-achieving girls so that the girls maintain a high global academic self-efficacy.
An Exploration of Women’s Engagement in Makerspaces
Vanessa Bean, Nicole M. Farmer and Barbara A. Kerr
Keywords: Talent; gender; Makers; engineering; creativity
Abstract: The Maker Movement is an international trend for communities to form around shared tools and workspaces in order to engage in do-it-yourself activities. Women are underrepresented in Makerspaces, and exploration of issues related to their participation may provide directions for future research. Eight women participated in a focus group study of their motivations, perception, needs, and goals for Makerspace participation. Women participated primarily to showcase their work and to network with others. They benefited most from encouragement and support to finish their projects. They did not perceive gender barriers to their participation, and their hope was that the Makerspace would become a community resource. It may be that these “pioneer” women in the Maker movement were used to being a minority in male spaces and felt welcome in most activities. Despite their acknowledgment of the importance of tools and space, what was most valued by these Women Makers were the social aspects of the community.
Academic Self-Concept, Achievement Goals, and Achievement: Is their Relationship the Same for Academic Achievers and Underachievers?
Franzis Preckel and Martin Brunner
Keywords: Academic self-concept; achievement goals; longitudinal study; underachievement
Abstract: This longitudinal study investigated the contribution of achievement goals and academic self-concept for the prediction of unexpected academic achievement (i.e., achievement that is higher or lower than expected with respect to students’ cognitive ability) in general and when comparing groups of extreme over- and underachievers. Our sample comprised 769 students (50.78% female, 160 underachievers, 176 overachievers) in the highest track of the German secondary school system who were assessed three times (in grade 5, 6, and 8). Controlling for students’ cognitive ability, results supported the reciprocal effects model for positive developmental relations between academic self-concept and achievement in the overall sample. Furthermore, academic self-concept and performance goals showed significant reciprocal relations. For achievement goals, only mastery goals showed positive reciprocal relationships with academic achievement, whereas performance goals (approach and avoidance) showed no significant relations. However, for underachieving students, academic self-concept as well as mastery goals were unrelated to later achievement, and for overachieving students, both constructs showed positive relations with later achievement. Findings indicate that interventions aimed at positive goal development might also produce positive and lasting impacts on academic self-concept and—mediated by self-concept—on academic achievement. However, this does not seem to apply to underachieving students.
Myth Busting: Do High-Performance Students Prefer Working Alone?
Cheryl L. Walker and Bruce M. Shore
Keywords: Classrooms; collaboration; friends; gifted; group work; learning context; learning preferences; working alone
Abstract: There has been a longstanding assumption that gifted, high-ability, or high-performing students prefer working alone; however, this may not be true in every case. The current study expanded on this assumption to reveal more nuanced learning preferences of these students. Sixty-nine high performing and community-school students in Grades 5 and 6 participated. A 26-item questionnaire addressed students’ learning preferences. Nine students were interviewed after completing the questionnaire to further explore their answers. Substantial evidence supported high-performing students’ preferences for working with others. These preferences were complex and varied depending on the learning situation. Implications for future research were discussed.
Students’ Perceptions of Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving
I-Chen Wu, Randal Pease and C. June Maker
Keywords: Creativity; curriculum for the gifted; differentiation; engagement; perception; problem solving; student voice
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore 42 elementary students’ perceptions of their experiences while they were engaging in a class in which the Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was used. A qualitative study was conducted to analyze their responses. Individual interviews and artifacts were collected and analyzed. Themes were identified in students’ perceptions across interview questions: topic, process, activity, collaboration, support, intrapersonal skills, and emotions. Researchers recommend integrating REAPS in different contexts and collecting adequate background information as a way to understand the effectiveness of REAPS. Differentiation principles applied in REAPS were beneficial to students’ engagement, thereby helping them to achieve long-lasting learning.
Current Status of Twice-Exceptional Students: A Look at Legislation and Policy in the United States
Nielsen Pereira, J. Dusteen Knotts and Julia Link Roberts
Keywords: Twice-exceptional; gifted; special education; legislation; educational policy
Abstract: Educational legislation and policy can lead to effective educational practices, especially for student populations that have had equal access to education addressing their needs, such as students with disabilities and gifted students. This study was an examination of state legislation and policy related to twice-exceptional learners in the United States. Forty-two administrators from state departments of education completed questionnaires, and 131 state policy and legislation documents were reviewed to reveal mention of twice-exceptional learners. Results indicate the (a) lack of state legislation and policy related to twice-exceptional students; (b) need for collaboration among general, gifted, and special education professionals; (c) importance of specific definitions and characteristics for twice-exceptionality; and (d) existence of models for initiatives related to twice exceptionality. The researchers intend for these results to lead educators to advocate for the inclusion of twice-exceptional learners in law and policy at state and national levels.
Cultural Considerations for Twice-Exceptional Children from Asian Families
Keywords: Asian American; Asian parents; gifted with disabilities; twice-exceptional children
Abstract: Since the term twice-exceptional has been entered to the field of gifted education, many studies have investigated the population of students who possess both giftedness and disabilities. It has been shown that there are some challenges to recognizing twice-exceptional children due to current screening and identification process. For this reason, the exact picture of what this population looks like has not yet been drawn, and further studies will be necessary to determine the precise racial/ethnic configuration. This has been a barrier to investigating how to approach twice-exceptional children from culturally diverse backgrounds. This article reviewed the previous research on twice-exceptional children with cultural considerations for the students from Asian American families. Several suggestions are provided: more understanding of Asian parenting styles and parenting stress; parents as advocates for their twice-exceptional children; and interdisciplinary collaboration. Directions for future research are suggested.
Don’t Stress: What Do We Really Know About Teaching Gifted Children to Cope With Stress and Anxiety?
Keywords: Anxiety; counseling; gifted education; gifted students; stress
Abstract: Gifted children may experience additional stressors due to their unique characteristics. While empirical evidence suggests otherwise, qualitative studies and clinical observations indicate that gifted individuals may suffer from higher levels of stress due to perfectionistic tendencies, heightened sensitivity, social challenges, and additional external pressures. Nevertheless, empirical research regarding counseling and stress-reducing intervention outcomes remains scant. The few interventions conducted, such as Gaesser’s (2014) work using Cognitive Behavioral and Emotional Freedom techniques with gifted students, have demonstrated promising results. Recommendations include offering incentives in the form of grants and funding to researchers interested in investigating intervention outcomes and investigating stress-reducing methods and approaches, such as mindfulness, which have shown positive impact.
At the End of our Editorship
A Message from the Outgoing Editor-in-Chief
Taisir Subhi Yamin
The Effectiveness of the Master Thinker Program in Developing Critical Thinking Skills of 11th Grade Students in Bahrain
Mousa Alnabhan, Najat Alhamdan & Ahmed Darwish
Keywords: Master Thinker program, critical thinking skills, 11th graders, Watson –Glaser, Raven test, quasi experimental design, Bahrain
Abstract: References Citations Metrics Reprints & Permissions Get access Abstract The current study aimed at investigating the effect of the Master Thinker program on developing critical thinking skills of 11th grade students in Bahrain. Specifically, this research attempts to examine the hypothesis: Teaching the Master Thinker program will be significantly effective in developing critical thinking and its skills (inference, recognition of assumptions, deductions, interpretation, evaluation of arguments) of 11th grade students. A sample of fifty 11th graders from secondary schools in the Kingdom of Bahrain was randomly selected. The non equivalent control group design as a quasi experimental design was utilized. The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking appraisal was administered to all study subjects before and after introducing the Master Thinker program to the experimental group subjects. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices test was administered to both study group subjects at the beginning of the study as a covariate. One way Analysis of Covariance ANCOVA was used to test the hypothesis. The results revealed a significant effect on the gain scores of all critical thinking skills subtests (recognition of assumptions, interpretation, evaluating arguments, inference, deduction) favoring the experimental group.